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Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Apr 7;49(7):4138-46. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00028. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Diversity and abundance of arsenic biotransformation genes in paddy soils from southern China.

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†State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People's Republic of China.
‡University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.
§Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China.
∥Sustainable Soil and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, U.K.
#Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, People's Republic of China.


Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) biotransformation in paddy soils determines the fate of As in soils and its availability to rice plants, yet little is known about the microbial communities involved in As biotransformation. Here, we revealed wide distribution, high diversity, and abundance of arsenite (As(III)) oxidase genes (aioA), respiratory arsenate (As(V)) reductase genes (arrA), As(V) reductase genes (arsC), and As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase genes (arsM) in 13 paddy soils collected across Southern China. Sequences grouped with As biotransformation genes are mainly from rice rhizosphere bacteria, such as some Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Firmicutes. A significant correlation of gene abundance between arsC and arsM suggests that the two genes coexist well in the microbial As resistance system. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil pH, EC, total C, N, As, and Fe, C/N ratio, SO4(2-)-S, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N were the key factors driving diverse microbial community compositions. This study for the first time provides an overall picture of microbial communities involved in As biotransformation in paddy soils, and considering the wide distribution of paddy fields in the world, it also provides insights into the critical role of paddy fields in the As biogeochemical cycle.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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