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PLoS One. 2015 Mar 4;10(3):e0118916. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118916. eCollection 2015.

The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

Author information

1
The Spectrum Centre for Mental Health Research, Division of Health Research Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom.
2
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
3
Health Methodology Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder.

METHODS:

Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms.

RESULTS:

The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008). However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000), manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009) and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008).

CONCLUSION:

The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

PMID:
25738578
PMCID:
PMC4349825
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0118916
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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