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Psychosom Med. 2015 Jul-Aug;77(6):664-70. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000146.

Modulation of Food Reward by Endocrine and Environmental Factors: Update and Perspective.

Author information

1
From the BSR&D Program, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; and the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Palatable foods are frequently high in energy density. Chronic consumption of high-energy density foods can contribute to the development of cardiometabolic pathology including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence the reward components of food intake.

METHODS:

A narrative review was conducted to determine the behavioral and central nervous system (CNS) related processes involved in the reward components of high-energy density food intake.

RESULTS:

The rewarding aspects of food, particularly palatable and preferred foods, are regulated by CNS circuitry. Overlaying this regulation is modulation by intrinsic endocrine systems and metabolic hormones relating to energy homeostasis, developmental stage, or gender. It is now recognized that extrinsic or environmental factors, including ambient diet composition and the provocation of stress or anxiety, also contribute substantially to the expression of food reward behaviors such as motivation for, and seeking of, preferred foods.

CONCLUSIONS:

High-energy density food intake is influenced by both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Contextual, behavioral, and psychological factors and CNS-related processes represent potential targets for multiple types of therapeutic intervention.

PMID:
25738439
PMCID:
PMC4501879
DOI:
10.1097/PSY.0000000000000146
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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