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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 May;171:55-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.02.004. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

Author information

1
Noto Marine Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Housu-gun, Ishikawa 927-0553, Japan. Electronic address: nobuos@staff.kanazaw-u.ac.jp.
2
Noto Marine Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Housu-gun, Ishikawa 927-0553, Japan.
3
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan.
4
Marine and Coastal Research Center, Ochanomizu University, Tateyama, Chiba 294-0301, Japan.
5
Division of Molecular Genetics Research, Life Science Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
6
Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
7
Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942, Japan.
8
Research and Business Foundation, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 81, Oedae-ro, Mohyeon-myeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 449-791, Republic of Korea.
9
Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273-009, India.
10
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
11
Department of Biology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Tokyo Medical Dental University, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0827, Japan.

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins.

KEYWORDS:

Embryogenesis; OHPAHs; PAHs; Sea urchin; Spicule formation

PMID:
25737366
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.02.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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