Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Infect Chemother. 2015 May;21(5):319-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

Applications of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of antimicrobial agents.

Author information

1
Pharmacokinetics, Nanotechnology and Gene Therapy Group (PharmaNanoGene), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; Centro de Investigación Lascaray ikergunea, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
2
Pharmacokinetics, Nanotechnology and Gene Therapy Group (PharmaNanoGene), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; Centro de Investigación Lascaray ikergunea, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. Electronic address: arantxa.isla@ehu.es.

Abstract

The alarming increase of resistance against multiple currently available antibiotics is leading to a rapid lose of treatment options against infectious diseases. Since the antibiotic resistance is partially due to a misuse or abuse of the antibiotics, this situation can be reverted when improving their use. One strategy is the optimization of the antimicrobial dosing regimens. In fact, inappropriate drug choice and suboptimal dosing are two major factors that should be considered because they lead to the emergence of drug resistance and consequently, poorer clinical outcomes. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis in combination with Monte Carlo simulation allows to optimize dosing regimens of the antibiotic agents in order to conserve their therapeutic value. Therefore, the aim of this review is to explain the basis of the PK/PD analysis and associated techniques, and provide a brief revision of the applications of PK/PD analysis from a therapeutic point-of-view. The establishment and reevaluation of clinical breakpoints is the sticking point in antibiotic therapy as the clinical use of the antibiotics depends on them. Two methodologies are described to establish the PK/PD breakpoints, which are a big part of the clinical breakpoint setting machine. Furthermore, the main subpopulations of patients with altered characteristics that can condition the PK/PD behavior (such as critically ill, elderly, pediatric or obese patients) and therefore, the outcome of the antibiotic therapy, are reviewed. Finally, some recommendations are provided from a PK/PD point of view to enhance the efficacy of prophylaxis protocols used in surgery.

KEYWORDS:

Breakpoints; Monte Carlo simulation; PK/PD analysis; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics

PMID:
25737147
DOI:
10.1016/j.jiac.2015.02.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center