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Radiology. 2015 Jul;276(1):274-85. doi: 10.1148/radiol.15141215. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Aggressive Intrasegmental Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Radiofrequency Ablation: Risk Factors and Clinical Significance.

Author information

1
From the Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science (T.W.K., H.K.L., M.W.L., Y.S.K., H.R., W.J.L.), Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine (G.Y.G., Y.H.P.), Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine (H.Y.L.), and Biostatics Unit, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (M.J.K.), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Gangnam-gu, Irwonro 81, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea; and Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul Republic of Korea (H.K.L., W.J.L., Y.H.P., H.Y.L.).

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and clinical significance of aggressive intrasegmental recurrence (AIR) found after radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Between March 2005 and December 2010, 539 patients (414 men, 125 women; mean age, 57.91 years; age range, 30-82 years) underwent ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RF ablation as a first-line treatment for a single HCC classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A. AIR of HCC was defined as (a) initial tumor recurrence with disease-free status at least 6 months after initial RF ablation and (b) the simultaneous development of multiple nodular (at least three) or infiltrative tumor recurrence in the treated segment. Patients were stratified into two groups: those with AIR (n = 20) and those without AIR (n = 519) during follow-up. Risk factors for AIR were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and risk factors for long-term overall survival were assessed with time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:

In a median follow-up period of 49 months (range, 6-95 months), AIR was observed in 3.7% of the patients (20 of 539 patients), with the frequency increasing to 15% in the subgroup with periportal HCC (11 of 72 patients). AIRs manifested as either multiple nodular type (n = 14, BCLC stage A or B) or diffusely infiltrative type with tumor thrombus formation (n = 6, BCLC stage C). At multivariate analysis, periportal tumor location and younger patient age were significant risk factors for AIR. The presence of AIR during the follow-up period has a significant effect on the overall survival rate (hazard ratio = 5.72, P = .002).

CONCLUSION:

The overall frequency of AIR after RF ablation for HCC was low, with periportal location and patient age showing a significant relationship to the development of AIR. The occurrence of AIR had an adverse effect on overall survival rate.

PMID:
25734550
DOI:
10.1148/radiol.15141215
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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