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J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):595-604. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.200253. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Beverage habits and mortality in Chinese adults.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA; aodegaar@uci.edu.
2
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Singapore; Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore;
3
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, and Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA; and.
4
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk.

OBJECTIVE:

This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

METHODS:

A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45-74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993-1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS:

The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and ≥2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher coffee and black tea intake was inversely associated with mortality in never-smokers, light to moderate alcohol intake was inversely associated with mortality regardless of smoking status, heavy alcohol intake was positively associated with mortality in ever-smokers, and there was no association between sugar-sweetened beverages and green tea and mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Asian; alcohol; all-cause mortality; black tea; cause-specific mortality; coffee; green tea; juice; soft drinks

PMID:
25733477
PMCID:
PMC4336537
DOI:
10.3945/jn.114.200253
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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