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Metabolism. 2015 Jun;64(6):720-8. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.01.008. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Effect of insulin sensitizer therapy on amino acids and their metabolites.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology, Endocrinology Research Unit, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: bairving@geisinger.edu.
2
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
3
Division of Endocrinology, Endocrinology Research Unit, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
4
Department of Nursing, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
5
Department of Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
6
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
7
Division of Endocrinology, Endocrinology Research Unit, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: nair@mayo.edu.

Abstract

AIMS:

Prior studies have reported that elevated concentrations of several plasma amino acids (AA), particularly branched chain (BCAA) and aromatic AA predict the onset of type 2 diabetes. We sought to test the hypothesis that circulating BCAA, aromatic AA and related AA metabolites decline in response to the use of insulin sensitizing agents in overweight/obese adults with impaired fasting glucose or untreated diabetes.

METHODS:

We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo, controlled study conducted in twenty five overweight/obese (BMI ~30kg/m(2)) adults with impaired fasting glucose or untreated diabetes. Participants were randomized to three months of pioglitazone (45mg per day) plus metformin (1000mg twice per day, N=12 participants) or placebo (N=13). We measured insulin sensitivity by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and fasting concentrations of AA and AA metabolites using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry before and after the three-month intervention.

RESULTS:

Insulin sensitizer therapy that significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity reduced 9 out of 33 AA and AA metabolites measured compared to placebo treatment. Moreover, insulin sensitizer therapy significantly reduced three functionally clustered AA and metabolite pairs: i) phenylalanine/tyrosine, ii) citrulline/arginine, and iii) lysine/α-aminoadipic acid.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reductions in plasma concentrations of several AA and AA metabolites in response to three months of insulin sensitizer therapy support the concept that reduced insulin sensitivity alters AA and AA metabolites.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00443755.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Metabolomics; Obesity

PMID:
25733201
PMCID:
PMC4525767
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2015.01.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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