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Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 May;8(5):464-74. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0372. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) Extract Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth by S Phase Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy via Redox-Dependent ERK1/2 Pathway.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China. scc@bjcancer.org qulike@bjcancer.org.
3
State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, China.
5
Key laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Abstract

Cancer is still the major cause of death across the world. Regular approaches cannot effectively solve the emerging problems, including drug/radiation resistance, side effects, and therapeutic ineffectiveness. Natural dietary supplements have shown effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Sarsaparilla (Smilax Glabra Rhizome) has growth-inhibitory effects on several cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, with little toxicity on normal cells. However, the mechanism underlying its function remains elusive. In the present study, we examined the anticancer activity of the supernatant of the water-soluble extract (SW) from sarsaparilla. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight (LC/MS-IT-TOF) analysis identified flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenylpropanoids as the major bioactive components of SW. SW was shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines in the in vitro and in vivo assays. S phase arrest, autophagy, or/and apoptosis were partly responsible for SW-induced growth inhibition. Results of microarray analysis and validation by quantitative RT-PCR indicated the involvement of oxidative stress and the MAPK1 pathway in SW-treated cells. We further found that SW destroyed intracellular-reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) balance, and supplement with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) significantly antagonized SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy. In addition, SW-induced GSH/GSSG imbalance activated the ERK1/2 pathway, which contributed to SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and resultant growth-inhibitory effect. Together, our results provide a molecular basis for sarsaparilla as an anticancer agent.

PMID:
25732255
DOI:
10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0372
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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