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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(4):610-4. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1012066. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Three-dimensional ultrasonographic placental volume in gestational diabetes mellitus.

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a Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Perinatology Division , Celal Bayar University School of Medicine , Manisa , Turkey.



We aimed to evaluate the placental volume and placental mean gray value in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy placentas using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL).


This case-control prospective study consisted of 39 singleton pregnancies complicated by GDM and 42 healthy singleton pregnancies matched for gestational age, maternal age and parity. Placental volume and placental volumetric mean gray values were evaluated. The placental volume (cm(3)) was analyzed using the VOCAL imaging analysis program and 3D histogram was used to calculate the volumetric mean gray value (%).


Placental volume was significantly larger in GDM (411.59 ± 170.82 versus 343.86 ± 128.94 cm(3); p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in mean gray value between GDM and healthy placentas (36.65 ± 7.02 versus 38.71 ± 7.91, respectively; p = 0.277). Placental volume was significantly correlated with gestational week (r = 0.219, p = 0.035) and parity (r = 0.228, p = 0.048). There was negative significant relation between placental volume and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index and resistance index (r = -0.278, p = 0.007; r = -0.315, p = 0.002; r = -0.322, p = 0.001, respectively).


Placental volume increases significantly in GDM, whereas mean gray values do not alter significantly. These data may reflect the placental changes in GDM placentas that may help to understand the pathophysiology better.


3D ultrasonography; VOCAL; gestational diabetes mellitus; placenta; placental mean gray value

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