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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 3;112(9):2912-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417203112. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Focus on the success of others leads to selfish behavior.

Author information

1
Theoretical Biology Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands; and.
2
Theoretical Biology Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands; and The Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.
3
Theoretical Biology Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands; and F.J.Weissing@rug.nl.

Abstract

It has often been argued that the spectacular cognitive capacities of humans are the result of selection for the ability to gather, process, and use information about other people. Recent studies show that humans strongly and consistently differ in what type of social information they are interested in. Although some individuals mainly attend to what the majority is doing (frequency-based learning), others focus on the success that their peers achieve with their behavior (success-based learning). Here, we show that such differences in social learning have important consequences for the outcome of social interactions. We report on a decision-making experiment in which individuals were first classified as frequency- and success-based learners and subsequently grouped according to their learning strategy. When confronted with a social dilemma situation, groups of frequency-based learners cooperated considerably more than groups of success-based learners. A detailed analysis of the decision-making process reveals that these differences in cooperation are a direct result of the differences in information use. Our results show that individual differences in social learning strategies are crucial for understanding social behavior.

KEYWORDS:

cooperation; cultural evolution; individual differences; personality; social learning

PMID:
25730855
PMCID:
PMC4352783
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1417203112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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