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Nat Genet. 2015 Apr;47(4):416-22. doi: 10.1038/ng.3237. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
2
1] Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
3
Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
4
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
5
1] Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.

Abstract

Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis.

PMID:
25730766
PMCID:
PMC4617383
DOI:
10.1038/ng.3237
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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