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Physiology (Bethesda). 2015 Mar;30(2):107-15. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00050.2014.

How bar-headed geese fly over the Himalayas.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; scottg2@mcmaster.ca.
2
Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall, United Kingdom;
3
Office of Dean of Graduate Research, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Tasmania, Australia;
4
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom;
5
School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom; and.
6
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Abstract

Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade.

PMID:
25729056
PMCID:
PMC4346704
DOI:
10.1152/physiol.00050.2014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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