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J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 18;63(10):2830-9. doi: 10.1021/jf505878a. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Metabolomics investigation to shed light on cheese as a possible piece in the French paradox puzzle.

Author information

1
†Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark.
2
§Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Abstract

An NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the differentiation between subjects consuming cheese or milk and to elucidate the potential link to an effect on blood cholesterol level. Fifteen healthy young men participated in a full crossover study during which they consumed three isocaloric diets with similar fat contents that were either (i) high in milk, (ii) high in cheese with equal amounts of dairy calcium, or (iii) a control diet for 14 days. Urine and feces samples were collected and analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. Cheese and milk consumption decreased urinary choline and TMAO levels and increased fecal excretion of acetate, propionate, and lipid. Compared with milk intake, cheese consumption significantly reduced urinary citrate, creatine, and creatinine levels and significantly increased the microbiota-related metabolites butyrate, hippurate, and malonate. Correlation analyses indicated that microbial and lipid metabolism could be involved in the dairy-induced effects on blood cholesterol level.

KEYWORDS:

SCFA; TMAO; cholesterol; feces; fermented dairy products; metabolome; urine

PMID:
25727903
DOI:
10.1021/jf505878a
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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