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Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 May;44(5):568-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2015.01.026. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Treatment strategies and outcomes of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with characterization of patients: a systematic review.

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Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.


The aim of this systematic review was to answer the question: What are the treatments available for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and their outcomes? A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement, search phrases were ('jaw osteonecrosis' OR 'bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis' OR 'bisphosphonate osteonecrosis') AND ('treatment' OR 'outcomes'). Ninety-seven articles published between 2003 and February 2014 were reviewed. The studies reported 4879 cases of BRONJ. The mean age of the patients was 66.5 ± 4.7 years. The male to female ratio was 1:2. The mean duration of bisphosphonate (BP) administration was 38.2 ± 15.7 months. The quality of the publications was good, with some moderate and poor. Minimally invasive surgical treatment was the treatment most used. Medical treatment was also used. Adjunctive treatments included laser, growth factors, hyperbaric oxygen and ozone. The articles provided a broad range of outcome variables to assess the treatment of BRONJ and the outcomes of each treatment. Considerable heterogeneity was found regarding study design, sample size, and treatment modalities. Clinical trials with larger samples are required to provide sufficient information for each treatment modality to predict the outcomes of each treatment.


BRONJ; bisphosphonates; management; outcomes; risk factors; systematic review

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