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Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015 Apr;40:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Oxidative and other posttranslational modifications in extracellular vesicle biology.

Author information

1
Semmelweis University, Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Nagyvárad tér 4, Budapest 1089, Hungary.
2
University of Oxford, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Le Gros Clark Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, United Kingdom.
3
University of Exeter Medical School, St Luke's Campus, Heavitree Road, Exeter EX1 2LU, United Kingdom.
4
Semmelweis University, Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Nagyvárad tér 4, Budapest 1089, Hungary. Electronic address: edit.buzas@gmail.com.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic vesicles, are phospholipid bilayer surrounded structures secreted by cells universally, in an evolutionarily conserved fashion. Posttranslational modifications such as oxidation, citrullination, phosphorylation and glycosylation play diverse roles in extracellular vesicle biology. Posttranslational modifications orchestrate the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles. The signals extracellular vesicles transmit between cells also often function via modulating posttranslational modifications of target molecules, given that extracellular vesicles are carriers of several active enzymes catalysing posttranslational modifications. Posttranslational modifications of extracellular vesicles can also contribute to disease pathology by e.g. amplifying inflammation, generating neoepitopes or carrying neoepitopes themselves.

KEYWORDS:

Citrullination; Exosome; Extracellular vesicle; Microvesicle; Oxidation; Posttranslational modification

PMID:
25721811
DOI:
10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.02.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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