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Nutr Hosp. 2015 Feb 26;31 Suppl 3:227-36. doi: 10.3305/nh.2015.31.sup3.8770.

Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

Author information

1
ImFINE Research Group. Technical University of Madrid. Spain. Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science-INEF. Technical University of Madrid..
2
ImFINE Research Group. Technical University of Madrid. Spain. Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science-INEF. Technical University of Madrid. IBERobn (Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain..
3
Sport Medicine Center. High Sports Council. Spain..
4
ImFINE Research Group. Technical University of Madrid. Spain. Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science-INEF. Technical University of Madrid. IBERobn (Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.. marcela.gonzalez.gross@upm.es.

Abstract

in English, Spanish

Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data collection which will be useful to proceed in dietary and nutritional intervention..

PMID:
25719790
DOI:
10.3305/nh.2015.31.sup3.8770
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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