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Elife. 2015 Feb 25;4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.05165.

Blood-stage immunity to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria following chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization.

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Division of Parasitology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.


Protection against malaria in humans can be achieved by repeated exposure to infected mosquito bites during prophylactic chloroquine treatment (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoites (CPS)). We established a new mouse model of CPS immunization to investigate the stage and strain-specificity of malaria immunity. Immunization with Plasmodium chabaudi by mosquito bite under chloroquine cover does not generate pre-erythrocytic immunity, which is acquired only after immunization with high sporozoite doses. Instead, CPS immunization by bite elicits long-lived protection against blood-stage parasites. Blood-stage immunity is effective against a virulent, genetically distinct strain of P. chabaudi. Importantly, if exposure to blood-stage parasitemia is extended, blood-stage parasites induce cross-stage immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stages. We therefore show that CPS immunization can induce robust, long-lived heterologous blood-stage immunity, in addition to protection against pre-erythrocytic parasites following high dose sporozoite immunization. Cross-stage immunity elicited by blood-stage parasites may further enhance efficacy of this immunization regimen.


cross-stage; immunology; infectious disease; malaria; microbiology; mouse; protection; sporozoites; vaccine

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