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Menopause. 2015 Mar;22(3):260-6. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000320.

Incremental direct and indirect costs of untreated vasomotor symptoms.

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From the 1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 2Columbus Center for Women's Health Research, Columbus, OH; 3Groupe d'analyse, Ltée, Montréal, QC, Canada; 4Analysis Group Inc, Boston, MA; and 5Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc, New York, NY.



Most women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are untreated. This retrospective matched-cohort study aims to evaluate the healthcare resource utilization, work loss, and cost burden associated with untreated VMS.


Health insurance claims (1999-2011) were used to match (1:1) women with untreated VMS with control women using propensity score. Healthcare resource utilization, work productivity loss (disability + medically related absenteeism), and associated costs were compared between cohorts.


During the 12-month follow-up, women with untreated VMS (n = 252,273; mean age, 56 y) had significantly higher healthcare resource utilization than women in the control cohort: 82% higher for all-cause outpatient visits (95% CI, 81-83; P < 0.001) and 121% higher (95% CI, 118-124; P < 0.001) for VMS-related outpatient visits. Mean direct costs per patient per year were significantly higher for VMS women (direct cost difference, US$1,346; 95% CI, 1,249-1,449; P < 0.001). VMS women had 57% (95% CI, 51-63; P < 0.001) more indirect work productivity loss days than controls, corresponding to an incremental indirect cost per patient per year associated with untreated VMS of US$770 (95% CI, 726-816; P < 0.001).


This study shows that untreated VMS are associated with significantly higher frequency of outpatient visits and incremental direct and indirect costs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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