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Front Neurosci. 2015 Feb 10;9:29. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00029. eCollection 2015.

Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Hungary.
2
Department of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.
3
Neurocentre Magendie, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U862 Bordeaux, France.
4
Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Hungary ; Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University Budapest, Hungary.

Abstract

Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP) and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory animals. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine). These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

KEYWORDS:

CART; dynorphin; hypothalamus; kisspeptin; neurokinin B; reproduction; substance P

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