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J Child Neurol. 2015 Oct;30(11):1520-5. doi: 10.1177/0883073815573318. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

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Department of Pediatric Neurology, Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital, Izmir, Turkey
Sleep Disease Center, Department of Neurology, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.


The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD.


attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; children; cyclic alternating pattern scoring; nocturnal polysomnography; sleep

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