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Blood. 2015 Mar 26;125(13):2038-44. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-01-528414. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Optimal treatment strategies for hemophilia: achievements and limitations of current prophylactic regimens.

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Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.


Prophylactic application of clotting factor concentrates is the basis of modern treatment of severe hemophilia A. In children, the early start of prophylaxis as primary or secondary prophylaxis has become the gold standard in most countries with adequate resources. In adults, prophylaxis is reasonably continued when started as primary or secondary prophylaxis in childhood to maintain healthy joint function. Initial data support that adult patients with already existing advanced joint arthropathy benefit from tertiary prophylaxis with significantly lowered number of bleeds, almost complete absence of target joints, and less time off from work. Current prophylactic regimens, although very effective, do not completely prevent joint disease in a long-term perspective. Joint arthropathy in primary prophylaxis develops over many years, sometimes over a decade or even longer time periods. The ankle joints are the first and most severely affected joints in those patients and thus may serve in outcome assessment as an indicator of early joint arthropathy when followed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Optimized outcome and best use of available resources is expected from individualization of therapy regimens, which comprises the individual's bleeding pattern, condition of the musculoskeletal system, level of physical activity and the pharmacokinetic profile of the substituted coagulation factor, and most recently includes novel products with extended half-lives.

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