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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;69(8):885-90. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.12. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
2
1] Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC).

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC).

RESULTS:

In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P < 0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P < 0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P < 0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP-NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

PMID:
25711955
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2015.12
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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