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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;69(8):885-90. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.12. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

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Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
1] Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.



The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC).


Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC).


In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P < 0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P < 0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P < 0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP-NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups.


Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

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