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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Apr 8;7(13):7093-100. doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b00410. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Nanoporous gold as a neural interface coating: effects of topography, surface chemistry, and feature size.

Author information

1
§Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551, United States.

Abstract

Designing neural interfaces that maintain close physical coupling of neurons to an electrode surface remains a major challenge for both implantable and in vitro neural recording electrode arrays. Typically, low-impedance nanostructured electrode coatings rely on chemical cues from pharmaceuticals or surface-immobilized peptides to suppress glial scar tissue formation over the electrode surface (astrogliosis), which is an obstacle to reliable neuron-electrode coupling. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising candidate to reduce astrogliosis solely through topography by taking advantage of its tunable length scale. In the present in vitro study on np-Au's interaction with cortical neuron-glia co-cultures, we demonstrate that the nanostructure of np-Au achieves close physical coupling of neurons by maintaining a high neuron-to-astrocyte surface coverage ratio. Atomic layer deposition-based surface modification was employed to decouple the effect of morphology from surface chemistry. Additionally, length scale effects were systematically studied by controlling the characteristic feature size of np-Au through variations in the dealloying conditions. Our results show that np-Au nanotopography, not surface chemistry, reduces astrocyte surface coverage while maintaining high neuronal coverage and may enhance neuron-electrode coupling through nanostructure-mediated suppression of scar tissue formation.

KEYWORDS:

cell−material interaction; gliosis; multifunctional biomaterial; nanoporous gold; nanostructure; nanotopography; neural electrode; neuron−astrocyte co-culture

PMID:
25706691
PMCID:
PMC4517587
DOI:
10.1021/acsami.5b00410
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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