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Nat Nanotechnol. 2015 Apr;10(4):308-12. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2015.2. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

Author information

1
1] School of Physics &Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK [2] School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.
2
Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Straße 100, Paderborn D-33098, Germany.
3
School of Physics &Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
4
Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China.

Abstract

Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

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PMID:
25705870
DOI:
10.1038/nnano.2015.2

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