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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015 Mar;22(2):108-15. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2014.12.002.

Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular disease--times are changing.

Author information

1
First Department of Cardiology, Interventional Electrocardiology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; and Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
2
First Department of Cardiology, Interventional Electrocardiology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; and Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be.

Abstract

The evidence relating blood pressure to salt intake in humans originates from population studies and randomized clinical trials of interventions on dietary salt intake. Estimates from meta-analyses of trials in normotensive subjects generally are similar to estimates derived from prospective population studies (+1.7 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure per 100-mmol increment in 24-hour urinary sodium). This estimate, however, does not translate into an increased risk of incident hypertension in subjects consuming a high salt diet. Prospective studies relating health outcomes to 24-hour urinary sodium excretion produced inconsistent results. Taken together, available evidence does not support the current recommendations of a generalized and indiscriminate reduction of salt intake at the population level, although the blood pressure-lowering effect of dietary sodium restriction might be of value in hypertensive patients.

KEYWORDS:

Blood pressure; Cardiovascular mortality; Cardiovascular outcomes; Salt; Sodium

PMID:
25704347
DOI:
10.1053/j.ackd.2014.12.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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