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Bioelectromagnetics. 2015 Apr;36(3):245-50. doi: 10.1002/bem.21891. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Effect of long-term (2 years) exposure of mouse brains to global system for mobile communication (GSM) radiofrequency fields on astrocytic immunoreactivity.

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Schools of Medical and Veterinary Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; SA Pathology, Hanson Institute Centre for Neurological Diseases, Adelaide, SA, Australia; NH&MRC Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research, Australia.


This study was designed to determine whether long-term (2 years) brain exposure to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces any astrocytic activation as these glia react to a wide range of neural perturbations by astrogliosis. Using a purpose-designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg on five successive days per week for 104 weeks. Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control any stress caused by immobilization in the exposure module. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and three coronal levels immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These brain slices were then examined by light microscopy and the amount of this immunomarker quantified using a color deconvolution method. There was no change in astrocytic GFAP immunostaining in brains after long-term exposure to mobile telephony microwaves compared to control (sham-exposed or freely moving caged mice). It was concluded that long-term (2 years) exposure of murine brains to mobile telephone RF fields did not produce any astrocytic reaction (astrogliosis) detectable by GFAP immunostaining.


astrocytic reaction; brain; immunohistochemistry; mobile telephony

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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