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J Pediatr. 2015 May;166(5):1252-1257.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.020. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

The association of dietary alpha-linolenic acid with blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis in people born small for gestational age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project study.

Author information

1
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: michael.skilton@sydney.edu.au.
2
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine; Department of Physical Activity and Health, Paavo Nurmi Centre, Sports & Exercise Medicine Unit, Turku, Finland.
3
Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
4
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine; Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
5
Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
6
Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
7
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
8
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine; Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether dietary alpha-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid intake is associated with lower blood pressure and aortic intima-media thickness (IMT) in people born small for gestational age (SGA).

STUDY DESIGN:

Participants were recruited at age 6 months and followed up every 6-12 months until age 19 years. Blood pressure and food records were assessed at each visit. A total of 1009 participants had at least one blood pressure measure and complete birth weight and gestational age data, including 115 (11%) born SGA (birth weight≤10th percentile). Aortic IMT was assessed by ultrasound at 19 years (n=413). Analysis was by linear mixed models and multivariable linear regression.

RESULTS:

Children born SGA had greater systolic and pulse pressure from age 14 years onwards. In those born SGA, systolic blood pressure was 2.1 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.8-3.3]; P=.001) and pulse pressure 1.4 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.3-2.4]; P=.01), per exponential increase in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake; weakened by adjustment for anthropometric measures. Long-term ALA intake was inversely associated with aortic IMT at 19 years in those born SGA (-0.30 mm [95% CI -0.52, -0.08] per exponential greater ALA intake; P=.008), independent of other dietary and anthropometric factors.

CONCLUSION:

Long-term dietary ALA intake during childhood is associated with improved vascular health in people born SGA.

PMID:
25702059
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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