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Front Psychol. 2015 Feb 2;6:27. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00027. eCollection 2015.

Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova Padova, Italy.
2
Department of Surgery, University of South Florida Tampa, FL, USA ; TEAMHealth Tampa, FL, USA.
3
TEAMHealth Tampa, FL, USA ; Tampa General Hospital Tampa, FL, USA.

Abstract

Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

KEYWORDS:

appetite; brain; hunger; hypothalamus; ketogenic diet; ketones

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