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Pediatr Clin North Am. 1989 Aug;36(4):795-822.

The neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry of pain, stress, and analgesia in newborns and children.

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Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.


Beginning with a brief description of mature anatomic pathways and neurotransmitters in the "pain system," this article details their development in the human fetus, neonate, and child. Special emphasis is given to the basic mechanisms and physiologic effects of opioid analgesia. The clinical implications of these data are described, particularly with regard to the maintenance of cardiovascular stability and hormonal-metabolic homeostasis in newborns and children undergoing surgery or other forms of stress.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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