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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2015 Apr;57 Suppl 2:37-41. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12684.

What assessments evaluate use of hands in infants? A literature review.

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Department of Women's and Children's Health, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.



To identify assessments, applicable to infants aged 3 months to 12 months, measuring hand function, and to discuss their usefulness in assessing infants at risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP).


Instruments described in two previous systematic reviews were scrutinized for inclusion of fine motor components. Additionally, a new literature search was performed in Medline, PsychInfo, PubMed, and Cinahl (2007-2013) to identify newly developed assessments of infant motor functioning.


Five assessments from the two previous systematic reviews included fine motor components but only three provided separate measures of fine motor performance: the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales--version 2 (PDMS-2), the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development--version III, and the Posture and Fine Motor Assessment of Infants, each of which provided measures of the preferred hand only. From 531 papers retrieved, 10 new assessments were found, three of which met our inclusion criteria: the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), the Grasping and Reaching Assessment of Brisbane (GRAB), and the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI). Only the GRAB and the HAI provide measures relevant for assessing infants at risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy; however, both measures are still under construction.


No currently available assessment for infants aged 3 to 12 months old measures aspects of hand function suitable for quantifying asymmetry between hands or quality of bimanual performance.

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