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Mar Drugs. 2015 Feb 13;13(2):996-1009. doi: 10.3390/md13020996.

Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic Mediterranean diet.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy. antonio.paoli@unipd.it.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy. tatiana.moro.phd@gmail.com.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy. gerardo.bosco@unipd.it.
4
Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, 90144 Palermo, Italy. antonino.bianco@unipa.it.
5
Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens 15773, Greece. keith.grimaldi@gmail.com.
6
Department of Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. dmangar1@gmail.com.
7
TEAMHealth, Tampa, FL 33606, USA. dmangar1@gmail.com.
8
Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL 33606, USA. dmangar1@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation.

METHODS:

We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation.

RESULTS:

All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD-4.7 kg, KDO3-4.03 kg, body fat KD-5.41 kg, KDO3-5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group.

CONCLUSIONS:

ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

PMID:
25689563
PMCID:
PMC4344614
DOI:
10.3390/md13020996
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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