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Anal Chem. 2015 Mar 17;87(6):3144-8. doi: 10.1021/ac504111f. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

In situ bioconjugation and ambient surface modification using reactive charged droplets.

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†Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.
‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.


Molecular ions are generated in induced electrospray ionization, and they can be transported to grounded ambient surfaces in the form of charged microdroplets. Efficient amide bonds formation between amines and carboxylic acids were observed inside charged droplets during transfer to the surface. Biomolecules derivatized using this method were self-assembled on a bare gold surface via Au-S bonds under the charged microdroplet environment. Cyclic voltammetric analysis of the self-assembled molecular film showed accelerated protein derivatization with cysteine, which allowed the covalent immobilization of the protein to the gold surface. Cytochrome C-functionalized electrodes prepared using the induced dual nanoelectrospray process showed bioactivity toward aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide below 50 μM. In effect, we have developed a method that allows derivatization of biomolecules and their immobilization at ambient surfaces in a single experimental step.

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