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Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2015 Jul;43(3):117-24. doi: 10.1249/JES.0000000000000044.

Heterogeneity of Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism: Influence of Exercise, Aging, and Disease States.

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1Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 2Division of Experimental Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, University Of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia; 4Applied Physiology Laboratory, Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan; and 5Departments of Kinesiology, Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.


The systematic increase in V˙O2 uptake and O2 extraction with increasing work rates conceals a substantial heterogeneity of O2 delivery (Q˙O2)-to- V˙O2 matching across and within muscles and other organs. We hypothesize that whether increased/decreased Q˙O2/V˙O2 heterogeneity can be judged as "good" or "bad," for example, after exercise training or in aged individuals or with disease (heart failure, diabetes) depends on the resultant effects on O2 transport and contractile performance.

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