Send to

Choose Destination
Br Dent J. 2015 Feb 16;218(3):123-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.44.

The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice.

Author information

Maxillofacial Unit, William Harvey Hospital, Kennington Road, Willesborough, Ashford, Kent, TN24 0LZ.
King's College London, Hon Consultant in Orthodontics, Guy's and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, King's College London Dental Institute, London, SE1 9RT;
Centre for Oral Growth and Development, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, New Road, London, E1 1BB.


Functional appliances have been used for over 100 years in orthodontics to correct Class II malocclusion. During this time numerous different systems have been developed often accompanied by claims of modification and enhancement of growth. Recent clinical evidence has questioned whether they really have a lasting influence on facial growth, their skeletal effects appearing to be short term. However, despite these findings, the clinical effectiveness of these appliances is acknowledged and they can be very useful in the correction of sagittal arch discrepancies. This article will discuss the clinical use of functional appliances, the underlying evidence for their use and their limitations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center