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World J Diabetes. 2015 Feb 15;6(1):109-24. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.109.

β-cell dysfunction: Its critical role in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.

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1
Yoshifumi Saisho, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Although, in contrast to type 1 diabetes, insulin resistance is assumed to be a major pathophysiological feature of T2DM, T2DM never develops unless β-cells fail to compensate insulin resistance. Recent studies have revealed that a deficit of β-cell functional mass is an essential component of the pathophysiology of T2DM, implying that β-cell deficit is a common feature of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. β-cell dysfunction is present at the diagnosis of T2DM and progressively worsens with disease duration. β-cell dysfunction is associated with worsening of glycemic control and treatment failure; thus, it is important to preserve or recover β-cell functional mass in the management of T2DM. Since β-cell regenerative capacity appears somewhat limited in humans, reducing β-cell workload appears to be the most effective way to preserve β-cell functional mass to date, underpinning the importance of lifestyle modification and weight loss for the treatment and prevention of T2DM. This review summarizes the current knowledge on β-cell functional mass in T2DM and discusses the treatment strategy for T2DM.

KEYWORDS:

Insulin secretion; Prevention; Treatment; Type 2 diabetes; β-cell

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