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J Hosp Med. 2015 Jun;10(6):358-65. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2329. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

Association of clinical practice guidelines with emergency department management of febrile infants ≤56 days of age.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
2
Children's Hospital Association, Overland Park, Kansas.
3
Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.
4
Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Division of Emergency Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
6
Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
7
Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
8
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
9
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri.
10
The Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness and Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
11
James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence and Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Differences among febrile infant institutional clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may contribute to practice variation and increased healthcare costs.

OBJECTIVE:

Determine the association between pediatric emergency department (ED) CPGs and laboratory testing, hospitalization, ceftriaxone use, and costs in febrile infants.

DESIGN:

Retrospective cross-sectional study in 2013.

SETTING:

Thirty-three hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System.

PATIENTS:

Infants aged ≤56 days with a diagnosis of fever.

EXPOSURES:

The presence and content of ED-based febrile infant CPGs assessed by electronic survey.

MEASUREMENTS:

Using generalized estimating equations, we evaluated the association between CPG recommendations and rates of urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, hospitalization, and ceftriaxone use at ED discharge in 2 age groups: ≤28 days and 29 to 56 days. We also assessed CPG impact on healthcare costs.

RESULTS:

We included 9377 ED visits; 21 of 33 EDs (63.6%) had a CPG. For neonates ≤28 days, CPG recommendations did not vary and were not associated with differences in testing, hospitalization, or costs. Among infants 29 to 56 days, CPG recommendations for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use varied. CSF testing occurred less often at EDs with CPGs recommending limited testing compared to hospitals without CPGs (adjusted odds ratio: 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.8). Ceftriaxone use at ED discharge varied significantly based on CPG recommendations. Costs were higher for admitted and discharged infants 29 to 56 days old at hospitals with CPGs.

CONCLUSIONS:

CPG recommendations for febrile infants 29 to 56 days old vary across institutions for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use, correlating with observed practice variation. CPGs were not associated with lower healthcare costs.

PMID:
25684689
PMCID:
PMC4456211
DOI:
10.1002/jhm.2329
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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