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J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 25;63(11):2947-55. doi: 10.1021/jf505591z. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Correlation of quinone reductase activity and allyl isothiocyanate formation among different genotypes and grades of horseradish roots.

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†Department of Crop Sciences and ‡Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3838, United States.


Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its ground root tissue is used in condiments because of the pungency of the glucosinolate (GS)-hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, respectively. Horseradish roots are sold in three grades: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 2 according to the USDA standards. These grading standards are primarily based on root diameter and length. There is little information on whether root grades vary in their phytochemical content or potential health promoting properties. This study measured GS, GS-hydrolysis products, potential anticancer activity (as quinone reductase inducing activity), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities from different grades of horseradish accessions. U.S. Fancy showed significantly higher sinigrin and AITC concentrations than U.S. No. 1 ,whereas U.S. No. 1 showed significantly higher concentrations of 1-cyano 2,3-epithiopropane, the epithionitrile hydrolysis product of sinigrin, and significantly higher total phenolic concentrations than U.S. Fancy.


Armoracia rusticana; allyl isothiocyanate; epithiospecifier protein; glucosinolate; phenethyl isothiocyanate; quinone reductase; sinigrin

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