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Gastroenterology. 2015 Jun;148(7):1452-65. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.009. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

Loss of Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Promotes Growth of KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Tumors in Mice by Activating PI3K Signaling and Overexpression of CXCL16.

Author information

1
INSERM UMR-1037, Toulouse University, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer and Laboratoire d'Excellence Toulouse Cancer, Toulouse, France.
2
UMR7286 CNRS-Aix-Marseille University, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology Research Center of Marseille, and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, AP-HM Conception, Marseille, France.
3
Pathology Department, Toulouse Hospitals, Toulouse, France.
4
Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
6
EA 3842 Laboratory, Medicine and Pharmacy Faculties, Limoges University, Limoges, France.
7
INSERM UMR-1037, Toulouse University, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer and Laboratoire d'Excellence Toulouse Cancer, Toulouse, France. Electronic address: corinne.bousquet@inserm.fr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

The KRAS gene is mutated in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Expression of this KRAS oncoprotein in mice is sufficient to initiate carcinogenesis but not progression to cancer. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for KRAS for induction and maintenance of PDAC in mice. The somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) inhibits PI3K, but sst2 expression is lost during the development of human PDAC. We investigated the effects of sst2 loss during KRAS-induced PDAC development in mice.

METHODS:

We analyzed tumor growth in mice that expressed the oncogenic form of KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) in pancreatic precursor cells, as well as sst2+/- and sst2-/-, and in crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- and KRAS(G12D);sst2-/- mice. Pancreatic tissues and acini were collected and assessed by histologic, immunoblot, immunohistochemical, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We also compared protein levels in paraffin-embedded PDAC samples from patients vs heathy pancreatic tissues from individuals without pancreatic cancer.

RESULTS:

In sst2+/- mice, PI3K was activated and signaled via AKT (PKB; protein kinase B); when these mice were crossed with KRAS(G12D) mice, premalignant lesions, tumors, and lymph node metastases developed more rapidly than in KRAS(G12D) mice. In crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- mice, activation of PI3K signaling via AKT resulted in activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which increased KRAS activity and its downstream pathways, promoting initiation and progression of neoplastic lesions. We found this activation loop to be mediated by PI3K-induced production of the chemokine CXCL16. Administration of a CXCL16-neutralizing antibody to KRAS(G12D) mice reduced activation of PI3K signaling to AKT and NF-κB, blocking carcinogenesis. Levels of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 were significantly higher in PDAC tissues and surrounding acini than in healthy pancreatic tissues from mice or human beings. In addition, expression of sst2 was progressively lost, involving increased PI3K activity, in mouse lesions that expressed KRAS(G12D) and progressed to PDAC.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on analyses of mice, loss of sst2 from pancreatic tissues activates PI3K signaling via AKT, leading to activation of NF-κB, amplification of oncogenic KRAS signaling, increased expression of CXCL16, and pancreatic tumor formation. CXCL16 might be a therapeutic target for PDAC.

KEYWORDS:

Mouse Model; Oncogene; Signal Transduction; Tumor Suppressor

PMID:
25683115
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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