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J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S303-16. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12378.

Treatment of oral malodour. Medium-term efficacy of mechanical and/or chemical agents: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

FOCUSED QUESTION:

What is the effect of a dentifrice (DF), a mouthwash (MW), tongue cleaning (TC), or any combination of these as adjunct to toothbrushing on intra-oral malodour and tongue coating as compared to toothbrushing alone in systemically healthy patients, when used for a minimum follow-up period of 2 weeks?

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to August 2014. Measurements of Volatile Sulphur Compounds and organoleptic scores of oral malodour were selected as outcome variables. Data were extracted and a descriptive analysis was performed.

RESULTS:

Independent screening of 1054 unique papers resulted in 12 eligible clinical trials with a medium-term (≥2 weeks) duration. The majority of studies provided a significant reduction in oral malodour when evaluating products with an active ingredient (incorporated into a DF or a MW) used adjunctively to toothbrushing. The added value of tongue cleaning over a MW was evaluated in one study.

CONCLUSION:

Due to very limited evidence, the potential effect of a specifically formulated dentifrice, a mouthwash or a tongue scraper for treating oral malodour is, in general, unclear. For mouthwashes containing the active ingredients chlorhexidine + cetylpyridinium chloride + zinc (CHX + CPC + Zn) and zinc chloride + cetylpyridinium chloride (ZnCl + CPC) most evidence was available. The strength of a recommendation to use these products was graded to be 'weak'.

KEYWORDS:

bad breath; dentifrice; halitosis; intra-oral malodour; mouthrinse; mouthwash; oral malodour; review; tongue cleaning; toothpaste

PMID:
25682952
DOI:
10.1111/jcpe.12378
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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