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Prev Vet Med. 2015 Apr 1;119(1-2):61-79. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.01.015. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

A scoping review of the evidence for public health risks of three emerging potentially zoonotic viruses: hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus.

Author information

1
University of Guelph, Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: bwilhelm@uoguelph.ca.
2
University of Guelph, Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada; Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, 160 Research Lane, Suite 206, Guelph, ON N1G 5B2, Canada. Electronic address: lisa.waddell@phac-aspc.gc.ca.
3
Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, 160 Research Lane, Suite 206, Guelph, ON N1G 5B2, Canada. Electronic address: judy.greig@phac-aspc.gc.ca.
4
University of Guelph, Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada; Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Roma, Italy. Electronic address: andrijana.rajic@fao.org.
5
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Food Research and Development Centre, 3600 Casavant Boulevard West, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8E3, Canada. Electronic address: alain.houde@agr.gc.ca.
6
University of Guelph, Department of Population Medicine, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: smcewen@uoguelph.ca.

Abstract

Emerging zoonoses are defined as those newly recognized, or increasing in incidence or geographic range. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV), while well known to be transmitted person-person, have also been hypothesized to be emerging zoonoses. Our objective was to investigate their potential public health risks from animal reservoirs. Given the diversity of evidence sources, a scoping review incorporating a mixed methods synthesis approach was used. A broad search was conducted in five electronic databases. Each citation was appraised independently by two reviewers using screening tools designed and tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized. At level 3 screening, data were extracted to support a risk profile. A stakeholder group provided input on study tools and knowledge translation and transfer. Level 1 screening captured 2471 citations, with 1270 advancing to level 2 screening, and 1094 to level 3. We defined criteria for case attribution to zoonosis for each virus. Using these criteria, we identified a small number of zoonotic cases (HEV n=3, NoV=0, RV=40 (zoonoses=3; human-animal re-assortants=37)) categorized as 'likely'. The available evidence suggests the following potential HEV human exposure sources: swine, other domestic animals, wildlife, surface waters, and asymptomatic human shedders. Possible at-risk groups include the immunocompromised and the elderly. Reports of NoV intergenogroup recombinants suggest potential for human-animal recombination. Greatest public health impact for RV zoonoses may be the potential effect of human-animal reassortants on vaccination efficacy.

KEYWORDS:

Hepatitis E virus; Knowledge synthesis; Norovirus; Rotavirus; Scoping review; Zoonosis

PMID:
25681862
DOI:
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.01.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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