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Eur Radiol. 2015 Jul;25(7):2125-33. doi: 10.1007/s00330-015-3605-7. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands,



Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis.


Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and cross-reference of PubMed/Embase databases. Studies were included if (1) they reported on the non-invasive index tests TTE, TEE, or MDCT; (2) data was provided on PHV endocarditis as the condition of interest; and (3) imaging results were verified against either surgical inspection/autopsy or clinical follow-up reference standards, thereby enabling the extraction of 2-by-2 tables.


Twenty articles (including 496 patients) met the inclusion criteria for PHV endocarditis. TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE had a pooled sensitivity/specificity for vegetations of 29/100%; 82/95%, and 88/94%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity/specificity of TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE for periannular complications was 36/93%, 86/98%, and 100/94%, respectively.


TEE showed good sensitivity and specificity for establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. Although MDCT data are limited, this review showed that MDCT in addition to TEE may improve sensitivity in detecting life-threatening periannular complications.


• Multimodal imaging is an important ingredient of diagnostic workup for PHV endocarditis. • Transthoracic and transesophageal echography may miss life-threatening periannular complications. • MDCT can improve sensitivity for the detection of life-threatening periannular complications.

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