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J Thromb Haemost. 2015 May;13(5):768-74. doi: 10.1111/jth.12873. Epub 2015 Mar 28.

Effects of airborne fine particles (PM2.5 ) on deep vein thrombosis admissions in the northeastern United States.

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Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.



Literature relating air pollution exposure to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), despite biological plausibility, is sparse. No comprehensive study examining associations between both short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM)2.5 and DVT or PE has been published. Using a novel PM2.5 prediction model, we study whether long- and short-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with DVT and PE admissions among elderly across the northeastern United States.


We estimated daily exposure of PM2.5 in each ZIP code. We investigated the long- and short-term effects of PM2.5 on DVT and PE hospital admissions. There were 453,413 DVT and 151,829 PE admissions in the study. For short-term exposure, we performed a case crossover analysis matching month and year and defined the hazard period as lag 01 (exposure of day of admission and previous day). For the long-term association, we used a Poisson regression.


A 10-μg m(-3) increase in short-term exposure was associated with a 0.63% increase in DVT admissions (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03% to 1.25%) and a 6.98% (95% CI = 5.65% to 8.33%) increase in long-term exposure admissions. For PE, the associated risks were 0.38% (95% CI = -0.68% to 1.25%) and 2.67% (95% CI = 5.65% to 8.33%). These results persisted when analyses were restricted to location-periods meeting the current Environmental Protection Agency annual standard of 12 μg m(-3) .


Our findings showed that PM2.5 exposure was associated with DVT and PE hospital admissions and that current standards are not protective of this result.


air pollution; deep vein thrombosis; environment; epidemiology; public health; venous thrombosis

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