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Clin Perinatol. 2015 Mar;42(1):77-103, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Dec 20.

TORCH infections.

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Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH-468, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, New York-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, 622 West 168th Street, PH-471, New York, NY 10032, USA.


TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.


HIV; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Parvovirus; Rubella; TORCH; Toxoplasmosis; Treponema pallidum

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