Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2015 Apr;89(8):4668-75. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03455-14. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

The acetyltransferase Tip60 is a critical regulator of the differentiation-dependent amplification of human papillomaviruses.

Author information

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA


The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is dependent upon differentiation of the infected host epithelial cell as well as activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) DNA repair pathway that in normal cells acts to repair double-strand DNA breaks. In normal cells, following DNA damage the acetyltransferase Tip60 must acetylate ATM proteins prior to their full activation by autophosphorylation. E6 proteins have been shown to induce the degradation of Tip60, suggesting that Tip60 action may not be required for activation of the ATM pathway in HPV-positive cells. We investigated what role, if any, Tip60 plays in regulating the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. Our study indicates that Tip60 levels and activity are increased in cells that stably maintain complete HPV genomes as episomes, while low levels are seen in cells that express only HPV E6 and E7 proteins. Knockdown of Tip60 with short hairpin RNAs in cells that maintain HPV episomes blocked ATM induction and differentiation-dependent genome amplification, demonstrating the critical role of Tip60 in the viral life cycle. The JAK/STAT transcription factor STAT-5 has previously been shown to regulate the phosphorylation of ATM. Our studies demonstrate that STAT-5 regulates Tip60 activation and this occurs in part by targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Inhibition of either STAT-5, Tip60, or GSK3β blocked differentiation-dependent genome amplification. Taken together, our findings identify Tip60 to be an important regulator of HPV genome amplification whose activity during the viral life cycle is controlled by STAT-5 and the kinase GSK3β.


Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPVs regulate their differentiation-dependent life cycle by activation of DNA damage pathways. This study demonstrates that HPVs regulate the ATM DNA damage pathway through the action of the acetyltransferase Tip60. Furthermore, the innate immune regulator STAT-5 and the kinase GSK3β mediate the activation of Tip60 in HPV-positive cells. This study identifies critical regulators of the HPV life cycle.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center