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Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Dec;49(3):317-26. doi: 10.1007/s12016-015-8469-8.

A Critical Review of the Effects of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine on the Eye.

Author information

1
Université René Descartes Paris V, Paris, France. nathalie.costedoat@gmail.com.
2
Centre de Référence Maladies Auto-Immunes et Systémiques Rares, Service de Médecine Interne Pôle Médecine, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75679, Paris Cedex 14, France. nathalie.costedoat@gmail.com.
3
Université René Descartes Paris V, Paris, France.
4
Centre de Référence Maladies Auto-Immunes et Systémiques Rares, Service de Médecine Interne Pôle Médecine, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75679, Paris Cedex 14, France.
5
AP-HP, Service de Médecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651, Paris Cedex 13, France.
6
Centre de Référence Pour le Lupus Systémique et le Syndrome des Antiphospholipides, Service de Médecine Interne, AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651, Paris Cedex 13, France.
7
Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75679, Paris Cedex 14, France.
8
Department of Ophthalmology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA.
9
Byers Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2452 Watson Ct, Palo Alto, CA, 94303-3216, USA. marmor@stanford.edu.

Abstract

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine have been used for more than 50 years to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases. In general, these drugs are well tolerated and rarely need to be discontinued because of an adverse systemic reaction. However, both medications can be irreversibly toxic to the retina. A new study indicates that toxicity is not as rare as once believed, but depends critically on daily dosage and duration of use, as well as other risk factors. With attention to dosage and other factors, and with proper screening for early signs of toxicity, HCQ can be prescribed with relative safety even over long periods of time.

KEYWORDS:

Antimalarials; Chloroquine; Drug toxicity; Hydroxychloroquine; Retinopathy; Systemic lupus erythematosus

PMID:
25672591
DOI:
10.1007/s12016-015-8469-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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