Send to

Choose Destination
N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 12;372(11):1019-30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414905. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.

Collaborators (393)

Hill MD, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, Ryckborst KJ, Wright MR, Kamal NR, Andersen L, Randhawa PA, Stewart T, Patil S, Minhas P, Almekhlafi M, Mishra S, Clement F, Sajobi T, Hill MD, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Shuaib A, Montanera WJ, Roy D, Silver FL, Jovin TG, Frei DF, Sapkota B, Rempel JL, Thornton J, Williams D, Tampieri D, Poppe AY, Dowlatshahi D, Ryckborst KJ, Kamal NR, Goyal M, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Subramaniam S, Hull G, Lowerison MW, Sajobi T, Salluzzi M, Wright MR, Maxwell M, Lacusta S, Drupals E, Armitage K, Barber PA, Smith EE, Morrish WF, Coutts SB, Derdeyn C, Demaerschalk B, Yavagil D, Martin R, Brant R, Yu Y, Willinsky RA, Montanera WJ, Roy D, Weill A, Hill MD, Goyal M, Ryckborst KJ, Kenney C, Aram H, Stewart T, Demchuk AM, Coutts SB, Menon BK, Subramaniam S, Barber PA, Smith EE, Stys PK, Watson TW, Klein G, Pearson D, Couillard P, Trivedi A, Singh D, Klourfeld E, Yu Y, Imoukhuede O, Nikneshan D, Blayney S, Reddy R, Choi P, Horton M, Musuka T, Dubuc V, Field TS, Desai J, Adatia S, Alseraya A, Nambiar V, Mishra S, Almekhlafi M, van Dijk R, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Morrish WF, Eesa M, Newcommon NJ, Shuaib A, Rempel JL, Schwindt B, Butcher K, Jeerakathil T, Buck B, Khan K, Naik SS, Emery DJ, Owen RJ, Kotylak TB, Ashforth RA, Yeo TA, McNally D, Siddiqui M, Saqqur M, Hussain D, Kalashyan H, Manosalva A, Kate M, Gioia L, Hasan S, Mohammad A, Muratoglu M, Williams D, Thornton J, Cullen A, Brennan P, Hare AO, Looby S, Hyland D, Cullen A, Duff S, Mc Cusker M, Hallinan B, Lee S, Mc Cormack J, Moore A, O'Connor M, Donegan C, Brewer L, Martin A, Murphy S, O'Rourke K, Smyth S, Kelly P, Lynch T, Daly T, O'Brien P, O'Driscoll A, Martin M, Daly T, Collins R, Coughlan T, McCabe D, Murphy S, O'Neill D, Mulroy M, Lynch O, Walsh T, O'Donnell M, Galvin T, Harbison J, McElwaine P, Mulpeter K, McLoughlin C, Reardon M, Harkin E, Dolan E, Watts M, Cunningham N, Fallon C, Gallagher S, Cotter P, Crowe M, Doyle R, Noone I, Poppe AY, Roy D, Lapierre M, Coté VA, Lanthier S, Odier C, Durocher A, Raymond J, Weill A, Daneault N, Deschaintre Y, Jovin T, Jankowitz B, Baxendell L, Massaro L, Jackson-Graves C, Decesare S, Porter P, Armbruster K, Adams A, Billigan J, Oakley J, Ducruet A, Jadhav A, Giurgiutiu DV, Aghaebrahim A, Reddy V, Hammer M, Starr M, Totoraitis V, Wechsler L, Streib S, Rangaraju S, Campbell D, Rocha M, Gulati D, Silver FL, Krings T, Kalman L, Cayley A, Williams J, Stewart T, Wiegner R, Casaubon LK, Jaigobin C, del Campo JM, Elamin, Schaafsma JD, Willinsky RA, Agid R, Farb R, ter Brugge K, Sapkoda BL, Baxter BW, Barton K, Knox A, Porter A, Sirelkhatim A, Devlin T, Dellinger C, Pitiyanuvath N, Patterson J, Nichols J, Quarfordt S, Calvert J, Hawk H, Fanale C, Frei DF, Bitner A, Novak A, Huddle D, Bellon R, Loy D, Wagner J, Chang I, Lampe E, Spencer B, Pratt R, Bartt R, Shine S, Dooley G, Nguyen T, Whaley M, McCarthy K, Teitelbaum J, Tampieri D, Poon W, Campbell N, Cortes M, Dowlatshahi D, Lum C, Shamloul R, Robert S, Stotts G, Shamy M, Steffenhagen N, Blacquiere D, Hogan M, AlHazzaa M, Basir G, Lesiuk H, Iancu D, Santos M, Choe H, Weisman DC, Jonczak K, Blue-Schaller A, Shah Q, MacKenzie L, Klein B, Kulandaivel K, Kozak O, Gzesh DJ, Harris LJ, Khoury JS, Mandzia J, Pelz D, Crann S, Fleming L, Hesser K, Beauchamp B, Amato-Marzialli B, Boulton M, Lopez-Ojeda P, Sharma M, Lownie S, Chan R, Swartz R, Howard P, Golob D, Gladstone D, Boyle K, Boulos M, Hopyan J, Yang V, Da Costa L, Holmstedt CA, Turk AS, Navarro R, Jauch E, Ozark S, Turner R, Phillips S, Shankar J, Jarrett J, Gubitz G, Maloney W, Vandorpe R, Schmidt M, Heidenreich J, Hunter G, Kelly M, Whelan R, Peeling L, Burns PA, Hunter A, Wiggam I, Kerr E, Watt M, Fulton A, Gordon P, Rennie I, Flynn P, Smyth G, O'Leary S, Gentile N, Linares G, McNelis P, Erkmen K, Katz P, Azizi A, Weaver M, Jungreis C, Faro S, Shah P, Reimer H, Kalugdan V, Saposnik G, Bharatha A, Li Y, Kostyrko P, Santos M, Marotta T, Montanera W, Sarma D, Selchen D, Spears J, Heo JH, Jeong K, Kim DJ, Kim BM, Kim YD, Song D, Lee KJ, Yoo J, Bang OY, Rho S, Lee J, Jeon P, Kim KH, Cha J, Kim SJ, Ryoo S, Lee MJ, Sohn SI, Kim CH, Ryu HG, Hong JH, Chang HW, Lee CY, Rha J.

Author information

The authors' affiliations are listed in the Appendix.



Among patients with a proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, 60 to 80% of patients die within 90 days after stroke onset or do not regain functional independence despite alteplase treatment. We evaluated rapid endovascular treatment in addition to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke with a small infarct core, a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation.


We randomly assigned participants to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus endovascular treatment with the use of available thrombectomy devices (intervention group). Patients with a proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation were included up to 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients with a large infarct core or poor collateral circulation on computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography were excluded. Workflow times were measured against predetermined targets. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A proportional odds model was used to calculate the common odds ratio as a measure of the likelihood that the intervention would lead to lower scores on the modified Rankin scale than would control care (shift analysis).


The trial was stopped early because of efficacy. At 22 centers worldwide, 316 participants were enrolled, of whom 238 received intravenous alteplase (120 in the intervention group and 118 in the control group). In the intervention group, the median time from study CT of the head to first reperfusion was 84 minutes. The rate of functional independence (90-day modified Rankin score of 0 to 2) was increased with the intervention (53.0%, vs. 29.3% in the control group; P<0.001). The primary outcome favored the intervention (common odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 3.8; P<0.001), and the intervention was associated with reduced mortality (10.4%, vs. 19.0% in the control group; P=0.04). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 3.6% of participants in intervention group and 2.7% of participants in control group (P=0.75).


Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a proximal vessel occlusion, a small infarct core, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation, rapid endovascular treatment improved functional outcomes and reduced mortality. (Funded by Covidien and others; ESCAPE number, NCT01778335.).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center