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Restor Dent Endod. 2015 Feb;40(1):50-7. doi: 10.5395/rde.2015.40.1.50. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study.

Author information

1
Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2
Departments of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
3
Students' Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
4
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
5
Departments of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i) to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), (iii) to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX.

RESULTS:

Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%). All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX.

CONCLUSIONS:

FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial activity; Chlorhexidine; Cytocompatibility; Ferula gummosa; Root canal irrigant; Sodium hypochlorite

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