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Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Mar 3;49(5):2912-20. doi: 10.1021/es505946e. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Emerging flame retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in indoor and outdoor media in Stockholm, Sweden.

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Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University , SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.


Dust, indoor air, outgoing air from ventilation systems, outdoor air, and soil were sampled in and around Stockholm, Sweden during the winter and spring 2012. The concentrations of several emerging flame retardants (EFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured. The most commonly found EFR was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), which was found in nearly all indoor, ventilation, and outdoor air samples, most dust samples, but not in soil samples. Other frequently detected EFRs included pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (EHTBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). PBDE concentrations were significantly lower in air and dust samples compared to a previous study in Stockholm. In outdoor air, DBE-DBCH, PBT, EHTBB, DBDPE, and PBDEs showed an "urban pulse" with concentrations increasing as samples were taken in more urban areas compared to rural areas. These EFRs show similar environmental behavior as PBDEs. Higher brominated BDEs showed this same urban pulse in soil but lower brominated BDEs did not. Air-soil fugacity fractions were calculated, and these indicated that most compounds are undergoing net deposition from atmosphere to soil, with the higher brominated PBDEs furthest from equilibrium.

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