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Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 Oct;31(7):680-90. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2640. Epub 2015 May 7.

Diabetes in pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and proposed codification of definitions.

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Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
Servei d'Endocrinologia i Nutrició, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.
Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain; CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Gender Medicine Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, The Canberra Hospital and the Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, CA, USA.
Mater Research Institute and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, (HDM), Brisbane, Australia.


Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, definitions of outcomes vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create a repository of definitions, which could then be used universally. A systematic review of the literature was performed on published and ongoing randomized controlled trials in the area of diabetes in pregnancy between 01 Jan 2000 and 01 Jun 2012. Other sources included the World Health Organization and Academic Society Statements. The advice of experts was sought when appropriate definitions were lacking. Among the published randomized controlled trials on diabetes and pregnancy, 171 abstracts were retrieved, 64 full texts were reviewed and 53 were included. Among the ongoing randomized controlled trials published in, 90 protocols were retrieved and 25 were finally included. The definitions from these were assembled and the final maternal definitions and foetal definitions were agreed upon by consensus. It is our hope that the definitions we have provided (i) will be widely used in the reporting of future studies in the area of diabetes in pregnancy, that they will (ii) facilitate future systematic reviews and formal meta analyses and (iii) ultimately improve outcomes for mothers and babies.


diabetes mellitus; gestational diabetes; pregnancy; pregnancy in diabetic patients; pregnancy outcome

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